What are the steps in a spot LNG transaction?
A spot LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) transaction refers to an immediate or short-term trade of LNG, as opposed to a long-term contract. Here are the general steps:
1. Identification of Requirements and Potential Counterparties: This is the first step where a buyer identifies a need for LNG on a short-term or immediate basis. They then search for potential sellers who can meet this need.
2. Negotiation: The buyer and seller negotiate the terms of the transaction, including the quantity of LNG, the price, the delivery date, and the location (port) of delivery. The price in spot transactions is usually based on the prevailing market conditions and is generally free from long-term price indexations common in long-term contracts.
3. Signing of the Agreement: Once the terms are agreed, the parties sign a Sale and Purchase Agreement (SPA) which lays out all the terms of the transaction, including responsibilities for logistics and payment terms.
4. Preparation for Shipping: The seller loads the LNG into a special type of tanker designed for transporting LNG. These tankers are cryogenic, meaning they can maintain the LNG at very low temperatures to keep it in a liquid state.
5. Shipping: The LNG is shipped to the agreed-upon location.
6. Receiving and Payment: The buyer receives the LNG at the specified port, typically transferring it to storage facilities or directly into their distribution network. After confirming the quantity and quality of the LNG, the buyer makes the payment as per the terms in the SPA.
7. After-Sale Services: Depending on the agreement, the seller may provide additional services such as technical support or assistance with regasification.
This is a simplified version of the process. In reality, the steps in a spot LNG transaction can be much more complex, involving a variety of contractual agreements, inspections, and logistical steps.